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Cranium
Cranium - full model
Cranium
The human skull is made of 29 bones, connected most often by ligaments and a movable temporomandibular joint (articulatio temporomandibularis). The bones of the skull, which make up the brain (neurocranium) and facial part (splanchnocranium), are divided into even and odd ones. The paired bones that make up the brain part of the skull are the parietal and temporal bones, and the odd ones are the frontal, sphenoid and occipital bones. The paired bones that make up the facial part of the skull are the nasal bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla, lacrimal bone, palatine bone, inferior nasal concha and auditory ossicles (malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup)). The paired bones of the facial skeleton are the ethmoid bone, vomer, mandible and hyoid bone. The bones of the skull are connected by sutures, usually 31 of them, although this number may be increased by additional sutures. Human sutures, unlike other primates, ossify on the inside of the cranial vault. The ossification times vary in individual sections of the sutures.
Cranium
Splanchnocranium
Hyoid bone
Hyoid bone
Cranium
Neurocranium
Auditory ossicles
Auditory ossicles
The auditory ossicles consist of the hammer (malleus), anvil (incus) and stirrup (stapes). They are the smallest bones in the middle ear. The hammer is connected to the eardrum on one side and to the anvil on the other side. The anvil connects to the stapes, and it connects to the membrane of the oval window. They are the only bones that will not change their size during human ontogenetic development.
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