The atlas vertebra directly supports the skull. There is no shaft in its structure. This vertebra resembles a "ring" with two arches: anterior (arcus anterior) and posterior (arcus posterior). On the posterior surface of the anterior arch, there is a fovea (fovea dentis), and the articular surface that connects with the tooth of the second vertebra (C2).
The cervical spine consists of seven vertebrae (the abbreviation of this segment is C), which show a characteristic structure (except for the first and second vertebrae). The cervical vertebrae are characterized by a small surface of the body, a large vertebral foramen, a bifurcated spinous process at the end, and openings in the transverse processes through which the artery and vertebral vein run. The physiological anterior curvature of this segment is called cervical lordosis (lordosis cervicalis). The formation of cervical lordosis is related to the first raising of the child's head.