The presented project uses the skeleton of a male who is 35–39 years old. The assessment of skeletal age and sex was made on the basis of skeletal determinants (including features of the skull and pelvis) used in anthropology. The skeleton comes from Radom (Poland) from the municipal cemetery that operated in the years 1794–1811. Thus, the skeleton dates back to the turn of the 18th /19th century. The skeleton was excavated during excavation works coordinated by Prof. Jacek Tomczyk. On the basis of the excavated skeletons from Radom, many specialist works were created in the field of osteology, palaeopathology and odontology.
The aim of the project is to prepare and develop bone models for the study of human anatomy. For this reason, selected bones were provided with anatomical records. These models were named "descriptio". Other bones not described, labelled "exercitium", were prepared for exercises and individual knowledge checking. According to the anatomical designation, the left side of the bone is marked with the word "sinster" (sin.), and the right side is marked with the word "dexter" (dx.). It is also worth noting that the prepared bone models are not made of plastic but come from authentic material. This means that some fragments of structures may have been damaged postmortem. However, such a loss of bone fragments from the point of exercise is extremely important, as it allows you to check your knowledge of anatomy.
The human skull is made of 29 bones, connected most often by ligaments and a movable temporomandibular joint (articulatio temporomandibularis). The bones of the skull, which make up the brain (neurocranium) and facial part (splanchnocranium), are divided into even and odd ones. The paired bones that make up the brain part of the skull are the parietal and temporal bones, and the odd ones are the frontal, sphenoid and occipital bones. The paired bones that make up the facial part of the skull are the nasal bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla, lacrimal bone, palatine bone, inferior nasal concha and auditory ossicles (malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup)). The paired bones of the facial skeleton are the ethmoid bone, vomer, mandible and hyoid bone. The bones of the skull are connected by sutures, usually 31 of them, although this number may be increased by additional sutures. Human sutures, unlike other primates, ossify on the inside of the cranial vault. The ossification times vary in individual sections of the sutures.
The atlas vertebra directly supports the skull. There is no shaft in its structure. This vertebra resembles a "ring" with two arches: anterior (arcus anterior) and posterior (arcus posterior). On the posterior surface of the anterior arch, there is a fovea (fovea dentis), and the articular surface that connects with the tooth of the second vertebra (C2).